Retired after 28 years of military service in Singapore, which included 8 years as the Directing Staff at the then-Singapore Command and Staff College and as a Military History and Strategic Studies Lecturer at the SAFTI Military Institute, the Armed Forces’ highest officer training institute. At the staff college, we train and develop mid-career officers to hold appointments as commanders or staff officers at the Brigade and Division levels. The one-year program serves to develop them as leaders and operational planners up to the Armed Forces’ level.

As a lecturer, I had the honour of imparting knowledge on leadership, joint warfare, military history and strategic studies to officer cadets, lieutenant and captain-grade officers, majors and overseas scholars. I also had the rare privilege of facilitating the conduct of two Senior Commander’s courses that served to prepare Colonel-grade officers for generalship.